Report Highlights: While some shelters saw increases in adoptions due to increased demand, overall, nationwide adoptions in the U.S. of cats and dogs decreased in 2020. Updated for 2021: COVID-19 impact on pet adoption in the United States.
- Compared to January 2020, nationwide adoptions showed a decrease in January 2021 by nearly -25%
- Many Americans acquired dogs in 2020 without adopting them from a shelter: 15% did not acquire a dog from a shelter or rescue, compared to 12% who did.
- In 2020, over half (67%) of households in the U.S. owned pets, and less than half of these pets come from shelters and rescues
- During the pandemic, many animal shelters had to scale back operations or close entirely, reducing the capacity for dog and cat intakes.
- In 2020, the nationwide decline in pet adoptions was estimated at nearly 24%, accompanied by an increase in the foster population of nearly 19%
- In 2020, 32% fewer dogs and 23% fewer cats entered animal shelters, and euthanasia decreased by -44%
COVID-19 Impact on Animal Adoption
As noted above, adoption rates decreased drastically due to fewer animal intakes and shelter capacity. However, many Americans opened their homes and hearts to animals in need:
- The percentage of animals entering foster care increased from 2019, with 11% uptick for dogs and 26% for cats, and a nationwide increase of approximately 19% in the foster pet population
- The number of fostering homes stayed consistent through the year with 2% of Americans indicating they were fostering or had fostered one or more pets.
California saw the greatest decrease in animals entering shelters, with a -35% decline from 2019. Additionally:
- The number of foster animals increased, with a 13% increase of dogs and 69% increase in cats being fostered
- Adoption rates within California declined -36% for dogs and 31% for cats
In order to get animals out of shelters, The National Animal Care & Control Association adopted a recommendation that:
“The lack of immediately available spay and neuter services should not be a reason for shelter euthanasia. Further, anticipated personnel and supply resource depletion in shelters dictate that essential services and lifesaving capacity be preserved by reducing the number of animals in custody as quickly as possible. This should be done by expediting the movement of animals to adoptive or foster homes and not extending the stay of animals in the shelter for spay or neuter surgery.”
Cat ownership and adoption increased in 2020, with nearly 18% of respondents indicating they have a kitten under a year old. However, not all cats were adopted from shelters or rescues:
- 17% of cat owners acquired a cat without going through a shelter/rescue/welfare organization
- 7% provided foster care to a cat from a shelter/rescue/welfare organization
- 14% adopted a cat from a shelter/rescue/welfare organization
- 6% indicated they had become a first-time pet owner
Dog ownership and adoption also saw an increase in 2020, with nearly 13% of respondents indicating they have a puppy under a year old. As with cats, not all dogs were adopted from shelters or rescues:
- 15% of cat owners acquired a dog without going through a shelter/rescue/welfare organization
- 8% provided foster care to a dog from a shelter/rescue/welfare organization
- 12% adopted a dog from a shelter/rescue/welfare organization
- 8% indicated they had become a first-time pet owner
Other statistics from 2020:
- During the pandemic in 2020, between 5% and 6% of Americans delayed getting a pet.
- Between May and December of 2020, the number of Americans who had gotten a new pet increased from 7% to 10%, with the lowest number occurring in June.
- By generation, the percentage of Americans who got a new pet in 2020 due to COVID-19 were as follows:
- 16% of Gen Z respondents
- 13% of Millenial respondents
- 9% of Gen X respondents
- 3% of Baby boomer respondents
- Spending on pets increased among 34% of pet owners, compared to 17% who spend less, and 49% who did not change their pet budget
- Housing challenges are the second reason most people surrender their pets to shelters, and the numbers vary on how many owners actually had to surrender their pets due to the pandemic or related reasons:
- Of pet owners who considered giving up their pets, 31% indicated that access to pet-friendly housing resources would have helped and 30% greater access to pet services and support.
- Surveys indicate percentages as low as 2% and as high as 13% of pet owners who had to give up their pets.
50% of pet owners indicated that more time with their pets was the primary benefit of working from home, and 78% of pet owners worry about their pet’s anxiety when they have to return to the workplace.
While in 2020 the number of pets entering shelters declined, estimates from previous years suggested that nearly 7 million cats and dogs enter shelters annually.
- Nearly half of animal intakes are euthanized or die in shelters each year
- 2 million are adopted from shelters
- 710,000 are returned to their owners
- 27% of cats are euthanized in shelters, compared to 20% of dogs
- Only 3% of cats who enter shelters are returned to their owners, compared to 19% of dogs
- There are approximately 3,500 brick-and-mortar shelters in the U.S. with over 10,000 animal rescue and sanctuary groups.
- The amount spent by humane organizations each year exceeds $3 billion, and animal control organizations spend between $800 million to $1 billion annually.
- In 2019/2020, the most popular pet in the United States were dogs and cats, with 96% of pet owners keeping dogs or cats (or both) in the home
- In 2019, 66% of pet owners allowed their pet to sleep in their bed with them
- From 2013 to 2018, Americans spent 50% more on their pets even though the average annual income only increased by 23%
Adoption: The Responsible Choice
Adopting from Shelters & Rescues
At Spots.com, we encourage adoption vs. purchasing a dog from a pet store or online retailer, which almost always get their dogs from puppy mills.
You will be saving a life, and taking a stand against unethical breeding operations and puppy mills. Most shelters and rescues run on shoestring budgets and rely on adoption fees, donations, to keep the doors open to homeless animals who have nowhere else to go.
The average cost to adopt a dog or cat is less than a third of what an animal would cost if you purchased them from a pet store or a breeder.
|Initial Cost of Pet Adoption (average)|
|Adoption fees||$50 – $500|
|Spay/neuter surgery||$50 – $450|
|Initial vaccinations||$50 – $120|
|Microchipping||$25 – $120|
|Total||$350 – $1215|
Is Owning a Pet Expensive?
While there are benefits to owning a pet, consider the expenses and stress of owning a pet. In addition to the cost of adopting or purchasing a pet, there are considerable one-time and ongoing expenses.
- A purebred dog purchased from a breeder can cost you anywhere from $500.00 to $15,000.
- Adoption fees for shelter animals are much lower in comparison. As of January 2021:
- The average adoption fee for a cat younger than 1 year averaged $86, and $57 for a cat older than 1 year.
- The average adoption fee for a dog younger than 1 year averaged $201, and $120 for a dog older than 1 year.
- The average one-time cost for adopting a cat and purchasing supplies can range from $350 to $1,500, and then you can expect an average, ongoing annual cost of between $450 to $900 each year for food, supplies, veterinary care, etc.
- Average one-time expenses for adopting a dog are typically higher, averaging from between $400 to $1800 in one-time expenses, and then an average ongoing annual cost between $450 to $2500 a year for food, supplies, veterinary care, etc.
- In 2020, 18% of pet owners surveyed by American Pet Products Association (APPA) indicated they would have to spend less on pet food due to their financial situation or switch brands to save money.
- Nearly 54% of Millennial pet owners indicated in 2018 that having a pet was about as expensive as they’d expected, and 40% indicated pet ownership was more expensive than they had anticipated. 5% indicated it was less
- In 2020, 28% of new pet owners were concerned about paying for their pet’s expenses during the pandemic.
Do you rent your home? You may have to pay a pet deposit and monthly fee, or you may not even be eligible to have a pet in the home.
- The average pet deposit is between $200 to $500, depending on the landlord/property owner and what type of animal you have.
- Respondents to an apartments.com survey indicated that 65% had to give up a pet because they could not find a pet-friendly apartment, and 27% because they could not afford the pet deposit/rent.
Pets can incur significant damage to your property and possessions, especially if you are still potty-training them or have pets who have potty problems.
Vet bills can be high and pet insurance can present an additional monthly expense but save money in the long run.
- Most pet owners of cats or dogs are likely to have at least one emergency vet bill between $2,000 and $4,000 during the pet’s lifetime.
- Surgeries for orthopedic problems or removing something from the intestine of your dog who eats everything can cost upwards of $5,000-$8,000 (we know this because we’ve paid for this surgery!)
Before considering adopting a pet, prospective owners should ask themselves if the investment in time and money is something they can commit to for the lifetime of the animal. What would happen if that pet needed lifesaving veterinary care and there was a choice to be made between paying for the veterinary bill or for your mortgage or rent that month?
If you have not owned a pet before, and are unsure about the decision, consider volunteering for local animal rescues or shelters to gain a better understanding of the level of care pets need and how to take care of them.
Cat Adoption & Ownership Statistics
Cats are the second most popular pet in the U.S., with nearly 34% of the population owning at least one cat.
- 43% of pet cats were obtained from animal shelters, 21% of pet cats were taken in as strays, 21% acquired from friends or relatives, 12% were obtained from a pet store, and 3% were purchased from a breeder or received as a pet.
- 76% of cat owners consider their cats to be members of the family
- 87% of pet cats are spayed or neutered
- 27% of pet cats are considered “purebred”
- 77% of pet cats are considered mixed-breed or mutts
Cat Ownership in the U.S.
Cats aren’t always kept in the family home. There are personal pets who do live at home with their families, or on their family’s property, i.e. barn cats.
The largest population of cats in the U.S. are “community cats,” who are strays, abandoned, or feral. They are unowned by are given shelter, food, and water by people in the community who try to take care of them.
- Estimates place the community cat population at 40 million but it could be much higher.
- It is not known how many community cats are spayed or neutered. The numbers are less in communities that participate in cat management/neuter/spay and release programs (also known as TNR and RTF initiatives)
- Nearly 10% of Americans will feed free-roaming or stray cats
- 81% of Americans feel community cats are better off left outdoors in their community than caught and euthanized
One of the biggest challenges facing communities with large populations of community cats is how frequently cats reproduce:
- An intact female cat can produce multiple litters each year, averaging 1.4 litters each year.
- The average number of kittens in a litter produced by a stray female cat is around 3, with only a 25% estimated survivorship among kittens 0-3 months.
Dog Adoption & Ownership Statistics
Dogs continue to be the most popular pet in the U.S. with over 50% of households indicating they own at least one dog.
- 48% of dog-owning households have a small dog, 33% have medium dogs, and 33% have large dogs. Since many households have multiple dogs, the percentage does not equal 100%.
- 85% of dog owners consider their dogs to be family members
- Animal shelters were the leading source (19%) from where dog owners obtained their pets, followed by breeders (19%), and 18% from a friend or relative.
- In 2019, the average annual amount spent on veterinary care per dog was $1,386.
- 78% of owned dogs are spayed or neutered
- 56% of owners considered their dogs purebred
In U.S. shelters, pit bulls are the most-surrendered, and least-adopted breed. In some cities in the U.S., pit bulls are actually illegal. 93% of pit bulls in shelters are ultimately euthanized.
4 of the 10 most popular dog breeds are also among the dogs found most frequently in shelters.
Don’t Fall for The Puppy Mill Rescue Scam!
Puppy mills are a machine-like operation designed to breed as many dogs as possible, in appalling conditions. They fail to meet the basic needs of dogs. Usually packed into tiny wire cages where they are confined for life, the breeding dogs suffer unimaginable abuse and neglect, sitting for years in their own feces and urine, and the puppies they produce often have congenital disorders. When a dog can no longer produce puppies or becomes ill, puppy mill owners often kill them in inhumane ways like drowning, shooting, or worse- and then discard them like trash.
Who buys from puppy mills and keeps them in business? There’s a strong possibility that you are, if you aren’t adopting from a shelter or vetted breeder.
- 90% of pet store puppies are born in puppy mills.
- Over 4 million puppies are born in the mills, with only 2 million surviving the brutal conditions of their birth and transportation to pet stores and brokers.
- Purchasers of puppy mill dogs usually purchase these animals because they are looking for a specific breed.
Increasingly, states and municipalities are cracking down on retail sales of puppies. Puppy mills refuse to let these laws cut into their bottom line. Within the last decade, owners and brokers have begun forming non-profit “rescues” that they sell puppies through in order to circumvent the laws. So if you are in a pet shop, you may see “rescue” dogs, which are almost always “laundered” puppies.
There are many animal rescues and shelters that undertake the actual work of rescuing dogs from puppy mills, rehabilitating them, and making them available for the general public to adopt. Choosing a dog from those sources instead of a puppy mill funds legitimate rescue operations instead of sending more money back to the puppy mills.
Read further for how to spot a puppy mill seller or “broker.”
Adopting Fights Puppy Mills
The number of puppies produced each year by USDA approved puppy mills is close to the number of dogs who are euthanized every year in shelters. If you are planning to buy from a pet store or a unverified breeder, you are not rescuing a dog, you are perpetuating the cycle.
Of the estimated 10,000 puppy mills operating within the U.S., only 3,000 are “legal,” according to the USDA. When one sees reports of shelters that were USDA approved, most of them are no different than the unauthorized mills. For the most part, these entities still breed and house dogs in abysmal conditions.
In 2020, nearly a third of puppy mills listed in the Humane Society’s annual “Horrible Hundred” problematic puppy mills, puppy brokering or transport facilities were connected to the American Kennel Club (AKC).
- 53 of these abysmal facilities are USDA licensed to sell to pet stores.
- Missouri has the highest number of puppy mills on the Humane Society’s Horrible Hundred list.
- As of January 2021, it was estimated that 2.6 million puppies originating from puppy mills are sold annually
- A puppy mill bust involving 250 animals has cost nearly $500,000
- It costs between $350 and $700 per animal to remove them from an illegal or unlicensed puppy mill and care for them
- Puppy mills have a severe impact on the health of the dog population in the U.S. but also on the environment.
- In 2010, a dog dealer was found to have been dumping nearly 200 lbs of dead dogs and puppies a month into fields and woods near their operation. The environmental impact of such actions can cause pathogens such as hookworms, roundworms, giardia, cryptosporidium and worse to seep into the water, and contaminate the ground around them. Pathogens and toxins can eventually become airborne and be transported as far as 600 miles away.
- Dog feces from living dogs in shelters often is left to rot for long periods of time, releasing further toxins and methane.
The decision to adopt from a shelter or rescue will ensure that you are not putting money directly back into the pockets of people who run commercial breeding facilities (puppy or kitten mills). Animals from these breeding “mills” are sold or “adopted” through classified advertisements, online, and infamously, in pet stores.
Any reputable breeder operation selling dogs online should be able to demonstrate their dogs do not come from a mill. In fact, many will invite you to see their litter and facilities firsthand. While you may pay a significant adoption fee to them, rescue operations will also be able to distinguish themselves from puppy mill operations that are trying to pass off their sales as “adoptions.”
How to Spot a Puppy “Dealer” or Mill
Do not adopt or buy a puppy from a pet store, at a flea market, or online from somebody you have not properly vetted. AKC (American Kennel Club) registration alone will not indicate they are running a legitimate operation.
- With the growing popularity of adopting or rescuing homeless animals, puppy mill sellers and brokers often pass off their dog-breeding operations as “rescues,” and charge a fine fee to “adopt” them. Learn to tell the difference between a legitimate rescue and a scam.
- The AKC has long been been connected to low quality breeders and its field inspectors have repeatedly signed off that some of the most appalling puppy mill operations were “within compliance,” “acceptable,” and litters coming from some of these places are AKC registered. Do not be fooled.
- Do a search for the phone number or other contact information for the person selling the puppy, if they are not a reputable breeder they will likely be using multiple advertisements or venues to sell their dogs.
- Do a Google search on verbiage used on a breeder’s website- does it appear elsewhere on the internet, such as a duplicate site they may be running? Check to see if photos of puppies (and puppy parents) are used elsewhere or are stock photos- right click on the image and “search Google for image” to see if their photos are used elsewhere.
- Insist on meeting the dog or puppy in the home or kennel where they were born and have been raised, and if possible ask to meet the parents. If the mother of the puppies is not present, or the dog being presented as their mother is not interacting with the puppies– the puppy was likely not bred there.
- A responsible breeder will gladly answer your questions and arrange for you to meet the puppy more than once to make sure you are compatible.
- If the seller will not allow you in to see their operation, acts defensive if you ask questions, or becomes pushy or aggressive, walk away.
- A responsible breeder will likely ask you a lot of questions to be sure you are going to give their puppy a good home, and some will not release their dogs without a background check of their own.
- Never meet in unusual places to buy a puppy, do not pay a deposit for a dog you have not met in person, and do not accept a dog being delivered to you.
- If a breeder lacks any paperwork or certificates for puppy vaccinations, worming, microchips and/or veterinarian check-up, walk away. Do not agree to have them forward this to you later.
- If a breeder seems dismissive or unconcerned about any health issues you might see in the puppy, or tries to tell you they are typical for that breed of dog, walk away.
The Advantages of Adopting Mutts vs. Purebreds
Have a specific breed in mind or want a new puppy? There’s a very good chance you’ll find exactly what you are looking for at a shelter or a breed-specific rescue, and there are thousands of them around the country.
As of January 2021, it’s estimated that 25% of dogs in animal shelters are purebred.
We also encourage potential pet owners to consider adopting a mutt, or mixed-breed dog. Not to be confused with deliberately crossbred “designer” or “hybrid” dogs, mutts are dogs that are the offspring of parents who aren’t the same breed, with little information known about their pedigree. There are many arguments advocating for only purebred dogs vs. mutts but one thing is for certain: genetics should not be the only consideration when choosing a dog to adopt.
The advantage of adopting a mutt is that they often have a much lower percentage of a specific breed of dog’s genes, lessening the chance they will develop breed-specific health problems. Mutts may also tend to have less of the intense breed-specific behaviors like herding, guarding or high prey drive. However, mutts are often more likely to suffer from lack of socialization that may occur more frequently in a litter of purebred puppies raised by a breeder. Mutts are also more likely to end up in a shelter, and develop fear-based behaviors and anxiety.
- Data released in 2015 indicated that when comparing the incidence of 24 genetic disorders in mixed vs. purebred dogs:
- The incidence of 10 genetic disorders, or 42% was significantly higher in purebred dogs
- The incidence of 1 disorder (4%) was greater in mixed breed dogs, and the remainder of the disorders showed no strong difference in incidence between mixed breed and purebred dogs.
- The more popular a breed is, the higher the risk of similar genetics passing down potential inherited diseases due to inbreeding or careless breeding.
- It is difficult to predict whether a hybrid or “designer” breed will inherit desirable traits of both parents or the exact opposite. In fact, “designer” dogs often suffer from deformities and hereditary diseases because they were bred to look the way humans think they should.
- Dogs bred for extremely large heads often have to be delivered via Cesarean section and can run the risk of becoming lodged in their mother’s birth canal: 86% of bulldog, 81% of French Bulldog, and 65% of Mastiff litters must be delivered via c-section.
- Up to 70% of Cavalier spaniels develop “syringomyelia,” which is a hereditary brain disorder common in small toy dog breeds who are bred with skulls too small for their brains
While conscientious breeders utilize genetic and temperament testing to eradicate certain diseases from a breed pool, many more are highly unethical. As a result, some of the most popular breeds of purebred dogs can also include the highest percentage of inbred and genetically compromised puppies.
In 2003, Consumer Reports warned that the demand for “perfect” or extreme traits in “purebred” dogs (such as increasingly smaller “teacup” dogs) has concentrated bad recessive genes and turned many pets into “medical nightmares.”
A shrinking gene pool where breeders are breeding related dogs is not sustainable without severe negative effects on the population. Many “designer” dogs are extremely susceptible to hereditary and non-hereditary health problems and birth defects that may not be readily apparent in puppies.
We are not saying that all purebred dogs are going to suffer from poor health and genetic disorders. There are lot of good purebred lines of dogs bred by responsible breeders, but it is somewhat unlikely you will find a high percentage of them in a pet store.
The Benefit of Pet Ownership
It’s been demonstrated that interactions, especially eye contact, between humans and their dogs can elicit similar oxytocin-positive feedback loops as occur between mothers and infants, decreasing cortisol levels in dog owners. In humans, oxytocin can regulate human emotional and social responses, including positive communication, empathy, trust, and maintaining bonds.
During the pandemic in 2020, 69% of pet owners indicated their pets gave them a sense of hope, 78% indicated less stress and anxiety because of their pets, and 75% indicated less monotony and boredom.
It’s believed that domestication of dogs occurred with dogs who could successfully establish this relationship with humans- receiving food, protection, and care from their people and in turn, helping their humans adapt for survival. Modern-day pet owners continue to reap the benefits of human-animal interaction.
- The CDC indicates that health benefits for humans who have a pet include decreased blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increased opportunities for exercise and outdoor activities
- Many children with autism and ADHD reportedly thrive working with therapy animals
- Petting a cat or dog for 10 minutes decreases physical and mental stress.
- 34% of fibromyalgia patients who spent 10 minutes petting a therapy animal reported a reduction in physical pain.
- Daily visits from a therapy dog reduced post-op patients’ dependency on pain medication by 28%.
- Cats purring at a frequency of 25-100hz are using established therapeutic frequencies known promote healing in humans. Not only do they keep themselves healthy, they can facilitate healing and recovery in their humans.
- Cat ownership can reduce the risk of a stroke by nearly a third!
Exotic Pet Adoption Statistics
While cats and dogs are the most popular pets in the U.S. and around the world, there are other pets that we bring into our families. Often referred to as “exotic” pets, these can include big cats, sugar gliders, chinchillas, birds, foxes, snakes, lizards, hedgehogs, monkeys ferrets, rabbits, and guinea pigs.
The business of buying and selling protected wildlife as exotic pets is a multi-billion dollar market. It’s also one of the biggest sources of income to criminals, ranking only behind arms and drug smuggling.
Exotic animals also end up in animal shelters frequently. Not only are their veterinary bills often higher, they can be more high maintenance, and not meet the expectations of the humans who purchased them. Many of them, such as big cats, cannot be re-homed or adopted.
Just as with dogs and cats, we recommend checking the laws about the type of animal you are wanting to adopt and be sure you are adopting your pet (exotics included) from a local shelter or rescue. If you want to spend time with exotic animals, consider instead volunteering at an animal sanctuary, the local zoo, or rescue.
- 19 states in the U.S. have bans regarding exotic animals kept as pets
Birds are another very common pet, and in 2020, it was estimated that nearly 5.7 million households in the U.S. keep birds.
- 25% of bird owners have one or more of the most popular parakeet, the budgie.
- 22% of bird owners keep cockatiels, followed by canaries and conures
- 42% of pet birds came from a pet superstore or pet shop.
Rabbits are often purchased as Easter gifts with nearly 80% ending up in a shelter for adoption after being surrendered by owners after reality of their needs set in.
- Rabbits are the third-most abandoned animals in shelters.
- Rabbits are high-maintenance and require a veterinarian with specialized knowledge and training.
- Rabbits are crepuscular and most active at dusk and dawn, can be extremely aggressive towards other rabbits, and require different types of training than cats or dogs.
- Rabbits are prey animals and don’t like to be held
Other Exotic Animal Facts:
- Pet shops are also a top source for “pocket pets” like gerbils, hamsters, and guinea pigs.
- Pigs are smarter than dogs.
- China has more domestic pigs than any other country in the world.
- Pigs tend to get along better with cats than with dogs.
- Ball pythons are popular pets and can live up to 40 years.
- Large snakes can go weeks or even months between meals.
- 4/5 of all snake species lay eggs.
- Pet turtles can live for decades.
- Turtles recognize their owners.
- All turtles can carry salmonella.
ASPCA Position on Pets As Gifts
A recent survey by the ASPCA indicated that 96% of people who received a pet as a gift either felt it increased or did not change their love and attachment to the pet, with 86% of those pets still in the home.
“The ASPCA recommends the giving of pets as gifts only to people who have expressed a sustained interest in owning one, and the ability to care for it responsibly. We also recommend that pets be obtained from animal shelters, rescue organizations, friends, family or responsible breeders—not from places where the source of the animal is unknown or untrusted.
If the recipient is under 12 years old, the child’s parents should be ready and eager to assume care for the animal. If the gift is a surprise, the gift-giver should be aware of the recipient’s lifestyle and schedule—enough to know that the recipient has the time and means be a responsible owner.
The recipient’s schedule should also be free enough to spend the necessary time to help assure an easy transition into the home. This is especially important during the holidays and other busy times.”
- APPA COVID-19 Pulse Study: Pet Ownership During The Pandemic
- Shelter Animals Count Data Dashboards
- Week 26: September 5, 2020 The 24Pet® ShelterWatch Report: COVID-19 Impact Report
- The Pet Food Industry Market Report
- Are pet adoptions truly rising? Pet food outlook for 2021
- Pets in a Pandemic: BETTER CITIES FOR PETS™ 2020 Report
- 24petwatch > US > 24Pet ShelterWatch Report
- Position Statement on Pets as Gifts
- Millennials and Pets
- PROSHARES PERSPECTIVES
- Illegal wildlife trade is worth £6bn a year
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- Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels in Dog Owners and Their Dogs Are Associated with Behavioral Patterns: An Exploratory Study
- Cat ownership and the Risk of Fatal Cardiovascular Diseases. Results from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Study Mortality Follow-up Study.
- The Purebred Paradox: Is the quest for the “perfect” dog driving a genetic health crisis?
- Health of purebred vs mixed breed dogs: the actual data
- Safety Concerns Stoke Criticism of Kennel Club
- About Pets & People | Healthy Pets, Healthy People
- ‘Puppy laundering’ ring dismantled — but affiliated for-profit business still selling dogs
- Designer and purebred puppies from other states sold as rescue dogs in Chicago, outsmarting city ordinance
- 2019-2020 APPA National Pet Owners Survey
- National Survey Reveals Renters Are Living For Their Pets
- Pet Industry Market Size & Ownership Statistics
- Resources for Animal Shelters
- 2021 Legislation